When we were illegals, and they took away our children.

We don’t know how exactly many of us were forced out of Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella’s cruel Edict of Expulsion in 1492, but conservative estimates put the number somewhere between 100,000 and 160,000 refugees. We climbed the northern mountains to escape into Navarre, we took to the sea hoping to find refuge in Mediterranean ports, and some of us even braved the Atlantic hoping to make a home in the New World. Our largest group, well over 50,000 Jews, sought asylum in neighboring Portugal—a country famed for its freedom of worship, sheltering Jews who fled the violence of 1391 and the recent persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition.

At first, we tried to cross the long land border into Portugal in an orderly and legal fashion. We sent a representative to King João II of Portugal and secured his agreement to allow temporary resident permits for 600 families and the privilege of purchasing transit visas for everyone else. The price was crippling: eight cruzados per every Jewish man, woman, and child—translated into 21st century American dollars, about $20,000.

For every Jew who could manage the payment, perhaps four others were forced to enter Portugal illegally, under cover of night along the loosely guarded land border. The only alternative was to accept baptism and return to our devastated homes in Spain. Many Jews did so, thinking perhaps that they could continue to practice Judaism in secret (known by the derogatory term “Marranos,” tens of thousands of these Jews and their descendants were mercilessly pursued by the Inquisition and ultimately murdered in public burnings).

By April 1493, many of us who entered Portugal found sea passage to other destinations. Others, especially those who paid for the transit visas, remained in government detention facilities; most lived quietly as illegal aliens in smaller communities throughout Portugal, trying to escape the notice of the authorities. King João II then adopted a zero tolerance policy—any undocumented Jews, including those with now-expired transit visas, were to be arrested and sold as slaves.

Two thousand Jewish children were forcibly separated from their parents. In a chilling act of incomprehensible cruelty, João shipped them off, aged two to twelve, to the uninhabited equatorial island of São Tomé off the coast of west Africa, and abandoned them on shore. Later Portuguese expeditions would reveal that only some six hundred survived. Many, according to the 16th-century historian Solomon Usque, were eaten by the huge lizards indigenous to the island.

João‘s cruelty did not extend to Portuguese-born Jews, but we and our children were not safe from his successor Manuel I. In late 1496 the new king determined to follow the Spanish example, ordering Portuguese Jews to choose between expulsion or baptism. He recognized, however, the economic value of the Jewish community, and put into place another child-separation policy to coerce us to choose Christianity over exile.

On the eve of Passover in 1497, Portuguese authorities raided Jewish communities and seized all Jewish children below the age of fourteen and baptized them as Christians. Eliyahu Capsali, a contemporary historian, wrote that when the Jews were searching for chometz in all the nooks and crannies of their homes, the Portuguese came with torches and searched them for our precious children. Parents were given the option of reunification with their offspring if they would but accept baptism—as in Spain, many did, and many lost their lives when the Inquisition crossed the border into Portugal thirty years later. In some cases, however, the children were simply lost—the government did not have a serious plan in place to reunite the families, and the children were never found again. In some cases, distraught Jewish parents committed suicide within the churches where they were to be baptized.

*****

I am a historian, not a politician. Like everyone else, I have my opinions about the long-standing immigration debate in this country, but in general I try not to share my views publicly. At the same time, I am a parent and a grandparent.

Last week I ran into a neighbor, another observant Jew, who mentioned in passing that he “could not care less” about the blanket child-separation policy occurring on the southern border. Me? I have difficulty sleeping, thinking about what this great country has done to these families, and the fact that months after the zero tolerance policy went into effect (and weeks after it was rescinded), over 2,000 children have still not been reunited with their parents, including over a hundred under the age of five. I just can’t understand how we–as Americans, as Jews, as human beings–can be so callous to this suffering.

I don’t want to get political about this. I don’t want to say it’s the fault of this person or that party. I want to do my part to bring us all together in agreement on something that should be obvious: separating children from parents as a deterrent to illegal immigration is horribly wrong. Yes, we need a solution to secure our borders. This is not it.

And if we don’t care? Shame on us.

39 thoughts on “When we were illegals, and they took away our children.

      1. One would think that one would be immune from this living in New York. One isn’t. I was walking to shul one Shabbos morning with the neighborhood farbissener scowled at me, saying, we don’t want your kind walking down this street.

      2. After reading this article I cried for a long time – this is new knowledge for my mind. Thank you for writing this article; it has caused me, through shame, to rethink my position on illegal immigration and especially on the children taken from parents. What can someone do to help the families fleeing into the Southern US borders?

  1. I largely disagree with you K’vod HaRav on 2 points:

    1) Making any kind of comparison to what is going on at the southern border to the atrocities of the Inquisition (and as some say, the Holocaust) is deeply insulting and a cheapening of our history

    2) There appears to be overwhelming evidence that many or perhaps most of the children separated from “parents” at the border are not the offspring of those accompanying them. This points towards child trafficking which is far worse than a temporary separation.

    Over the last 2 years the U.S. government has been making an extra-ordinary effort to stop child-traffickers, I see no reason for shame to deny those traffickers their innocent refills.

    B’veracha

    1. Here’s the basic point of comparison: both governments pursued a blanket policy of child separation. It is an insult, but not as you suggest—it is an insult to the intelligence and common decency of 21st century Americans to ignore that fact. And I challenge anyone to find “overwhelming evidence” that “most” of these children are not the offspring of the adults who accompanied them. That sounds that a weak rationalization for a cruel policy.

      No one will deny the wisdom of protecting children when they are at risk. It is cynically Orwellian to claim that the zero tolerance policy is motivated principally by child welfare.

      1. I love all the moaning and whining and rhetoric about losing sleep at night, yet I see no proposals. When directly confronted suddenly it is up to the politicians.
        Do we let them all in? Do we not vet? Do we redefine asylum to mean anyone who is threatened by anyone (and not specifically by the government) and include domestic abuse?
        Furthermore, with all due respect, you have no right to compare the plight of Jews who were threatened and killed for being Jews to that of Central Americans passing through MULTIPLE other countries to get here for no reason other than to potentially improve their economic situation. You dishonor the memory of every slaughtered jew.
        Frankly, you should be ashamed to call yourself an historian.
        You claim multiple times in your opinion piece that you don’t want to get political but that is exactly what you are doing.
        You are blinded by your hate of the current administration.
        Shame. Shame. Shame.

      2. Hello Mr. “Embarrassed for You.” I imagine you are grateful for the anonymity of the Internet, which allows you to vent your spleen without revealing your real name. Nevertheless, I’m not surprised; I assumed I would receive some comments of this nature.

        The sleeplessness, the “moaning and whining,” is not rhetoric. The fact that there are people like you out there who don’t feel the pain of other human beings is a big part of my malaise. And you can bet I will do my part to ensure that our elected leaders avoid such disastrous policies in the future.

        You know, now that you mention it, I think it would be good for you to take a course in rhetoric sometime, so you will learn the absurdity of your argument. Just because I am objecting to taking children away from their parents as a standard policy does not mean I want unfettered access, “open borders,” or other such ridiculous and dangerous notions. But get this: just because I don’t propose a comprehensive solution doesn’t mean that I can’t condemn an inhumane policy. Many options are open to our leaders; this one is not (and the courts agree, by the way). Other silly arguments–the fact that the migrants passed through multiple countries (I’ll skip the capital letters, no need) does not alter the fact that taking their children away is wrong. And of course we can absolutely compare them to Jews who also travelled through multiple countries to enter this great country, even “for no reason other than to potentially improve their economic situation.” My grandparents travelled through several themselves, and I would certainly be unhappy if the government took their children–my parents–away from them.

        Don’t bother offering me your “due respect,” I don’t believe you mean it anyway. And yes, I do call myself a historian, and I’m not alone–I have the degrees, teaching experience, and publications and other things that go along with it. More importantly, though, I call myself a human being, and my issue with the child separation policy is human in nature. I don’t care which administration is responsible, that’s not relevant. The only thing that matters is that we, as Americans, Jews, and human beings, may not remain silent in the face of such irresponsible, inhumane policies.

        Am I ashamed? Yes. But not for what you think. I am ashamed that I did not contribute my voice to those who opposed this policy earlier.

        Let me conclude with one brief reminder. I don’t know, Mr. (Ms?) “Embarrassed for you,” if you have much familiarity with the Bible. The Torah, however, repeats one commandment more than any other, a total of 36 times actually. Maybe because it’s important? The term “ger” is sometimes translated as “stranger,” sometimes as “convert,” but its root meaning is a resident alien–someone who is of foreign origins who resides among you. Here’s one example of the commandment, from Exodus 22:20–I’ll use my cut and paste to give you a sense of what God seems to emphasize for us. Have a nice day.

        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
        And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

    2. 1. The comparison was to the atrocities in Central America these people are trying to escape

      2. Please cite to the evidence of trafficking you assert. Pregnant women, nursing mothers? Trafficking? We have procedures for that are not so cruel

    3. First off what is going is horrendous. I see no cheapening of the history of MY people ok. First off I am a Mexican and I see the way people make comments about my people. It’s disgusting and reprehensible! Second, as a descendant of Sephardic Jews who were tried in the Inquisition and forced to convert and one of my several times great grandfather burned in the inquisition I am offended by your comment Yosi. You know nothing of what is going on because you read some articles that have zero basis and no majority of children are not trafficked children either. Trafficking has been a problem all OVER the world not just the United States. Thank you Dr. Abramson I appreciate your input I can’t sleep either it has gotten to me and makes me incredibly angry also. Thanks for sharing this history.

    4. Thank you for making this point. Also, the crying toddler on the front cover of Time was NOT separated from her mother. Instead, her already-deported-from-the-US mother left her husband and other children behind in her home country — a true shande and a true example of family separation — to pay a smuggler the equivalent of $6,000 take her toddler on a truly perilous journey, through a lawless zone ruled by smugglers.

      The children are separated at the border because it is not safe for them to stay in long-term care in the detention centers with other unrelated adults, while the economic migrants (not fleeing from the brutality of the concept of “convert or die) attempt to claim asylum and the to await their hearings. They are cared for, fed, clothed, taught and entertained.

      Obama did this throughout his presidence, yet no one complained. Children are not permanently separated from their parents and they are not sent to some island to be consumed by lizards.

      Please do your research.

      1. Hello Ms. Oppenheimer:

        Thanks for your note. Some quick responses and clarifications:

        1) I’m not addressing that iconic photograph of the crying toddler. I am speaking to the issue of over 2,500 children separated from their parents since the Zero Tolerance policy was in effect.

        2) No one would disagree with separating children from the adults they are traveling with if the children’s welfare is at risk, even if they are their biological parents. Jailing the parents for a misdemeanor, however, creates an artificial situation where the children must be separated (or, per the Flores rule, they must be released after 21 days). It’s clear that the abrupt introduction of blanket detention for all migrants, even some asylum seekers (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2018/05/30/fact-checking-immigration-spin-on-separating-families-and-1500-lost-children/?noredirect=on), and the concomitant separation from their children was mandated as a deterrent to migration.

        3) The fact that the Obama administration authorized Border Patrol agents to use discretion is appropriate and not related to the Zero Tolerance policy. I call red herring argument.

        4) I love it when people tell me to do research.

        HMA

  2. Dear Henry, you have shared an excellent article! I am a direct descendant of don Abraham Senior so I knew that story so well. Thanks for sharing! Shalom

    El mié., 11 jul. 2018 a las 7:42, Henry Abramson () escribió:

    > Henry Abramson posted: ” We don’t know how exactly many of us were forced > out of Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella’s cruel Edict of Expulsion in 1492, > but conservative estimates put the number somewhere between 100,000 and > 160,000 refugees. We climbed the northern mountains to es” >

  3. Thank you for using your voice & your platform to elevate the consciousness and CONSCIENCE of any reader. Interesting question: is it political or is it being human? I see it both ways. Since the day the person who became POTUS mocked a disabled reporter to cheering crowds, there has been a devolution of human decency in this country [But, of course, if your skin is brown, there has always been human indecency; a topic for another time]. On the other hand, perhaps all he did was make public the underlying bigotry that exists as surely as we humans exist? Likely from the out-of-Eden moment in time, when our eyes were opened to our differences.? If that, then should we not fight it today? No. We fight, we SPEAK OUT and most importantly, we PROTECT ALL GD’S CHILDREN. Thank you, Dean Abramson, for forcing us to THINK and to COMMIT TO HUMANITY.

    1. Thanks for your kind words, Susan. I am certainly disturbed by many things going on in our political life today, but I get in plenty trouble as is just talking about Jewish history. We can continue our discussion offline. If we can hew to your line about committing to humanity, that would be a huge victory for all of us.

  4. Kvod HaRav,

    As much as I respect you and your work there you do not have any right to compare the treatment of Jewish children in the Inquisition or the Holocaust to what is going on on the southern border. You are an historian so I hardly have to explain the difference.

    I remember crossing into the U.S. many years ago with my the 2-year old. He was neither on my or my wife’s passport so they took him from us for about 5 minutes so that they could verify who he and we were. That’s a totally reasonable policy. Were the government mistreating these kid or killing them for that matter (and I realize that there may be some issues – issues that interested nobody before Trump became president) your comparison might, in some small way, be justifiable. Sincw that is not the case I have no choicw but to disagree.

    Respectfully,

    Yosi

    1. Yosi, how did you feel when they took away your child for five minutes? How would you imagine feeling if they took him away for months, G-d forbid, and couldn’t tell you where they sent him? And we are talking about children his age, even younger. Do we really think that’s not mistreatment? Yosi, you may certainly disagree–and by the way, I’m not a Rabbi–but the situation is really very simple, and as far as I’m concerned, it’s entirely irrelevant to which administration started it. My protest is not political, and I don’t care to engage in that kind of dialogue, especially not with strangers on the internet.

      This is what we need to agree on: we should be deeply concerned that there are 2,000 children scattered in shelters across the country because our government took them away from their parents for reasons other than the childrens’ safety. We should be demanding loudly that our elected officials stop everything, especially the political infighting, until these boys and girls are back with their parents. Then we can get back to working on comprehensive immigration reform.

      1. Hi Prof Abramson,

        An uncomfortable fact that studies find that a high percentage of these Spanish speaking refugees have Jewish DNA – along with Spanish and Indian DNA.
        This means of course that many of these people are the descendants of both the villains and of the oppressed.

        I enjoy your articles immensely.

        Shlomo Roter

  5. Thank you sir for this well written article.

    I wish I had someplace to share it. I’ve shared it on the twitter echo chamber.

    What shames me is that if I were to share it on facebook many of my family members would react as your neighbor did. I do not know how to open their eyes when they purposefully are closing them.

  6. some thoughts. I think we must look at the big picture. We must examine how deep our chesed and kindness really is. First, separating children from parents is horrible. It leads to often life changing damaging mental health/social harm. We all should do what we can to prevent and repair it and I think we all agree on that. That being said- as Americans we all allow it to happen every day to citizens of our own country through our penal system. Most of us don’t spend any time thinking or worrying about it. But it is happening every day if someone gets sentenced to jail, children are left without a father or mother. There has been no significant liberal, leftest or concerned Jewish movement to change this. So do we really care about it, or are we too selective? Second, many immigrants come just for financial opportunities. Just as people in this country “borrow children” to get extra welfare benefits, the drug traffickers have figured out that if they cross with a woman and child it is easier for them. the famous Time picture of Trump with the little girl is a strange twisted situation. She abandoned her husband and other children. The husband did not want her to go- or so he says now. he had a very good job. Until proven otherwise, i am suspect that a drug trafficker rented this family for the sake of crossing. Thirdly- many economists have shown that America’s immigration policy harms the other nations- we take the healthiest, best, brightest etc.. leaving behind those less qualified to advance their home country. Mexico is not poor. They have the 15th largest GDP. They have oil, sunshine and proximity to the USA. They could improve their own country. and we could help proactively and avoid other problems. They have been unwilling and/or incapable to date of doing so, but efforts should be made. Parents in the central american countries separate children from adults every day- sending 10 and 11 year old alone on trips with strangers. Fourth, many of the people protesting immigration are really protesting Trump and for one main reason- they are fearful of him/ his court reversing Roe vs. Wade. This is what it is really about. Fifth- many of these leftist liberal save the children organizations are funded by islamofascist terror groups who have found a way to bring division to America. We must vet to see if it is a “kosher protest” group. There is Chesed, and then there is Chesed Leumi Katan. ( A nazi who salivates at the opportunity to kill Jews, but likes to give one last meal- this meal is not chesed). This country is great and special. but we are not immune to the same forces that have destroyed every other empire. There are ” no go” schools in the southwest where spanish students beat up any white student who wears American Flag shirts etc.. The west used to be part of Mexico, and among the leadership of Mexico I highly suspect, like in all these territory situations world wide, a desire to get it back one day. population Jihad. When there is even talk of California succeeding, we have to wonder- could it really happen. last point- many liberals protest this immigration stance. many in Hollywood. yet these same people, especially the prominent actors and actresses, do not give up their cocaine and drug filled parties and life styles knowning there is tremendous downside to people in these countries that produce the drugs. so they are not such kind people. they want other people to change, not them. they are for this illegal immigration but fight tooth and nail for local california municipalites to keep their private beach status and not turn it into public usage. That being said, as a country we must do everything possible to minimize family hardship. and super last point- Congress must enact a better, more up to date immigration policy.

    1. There’s a lot of material in your post, Charles, and I’m not going to try to address everything comprehensively because my focus is on one specific issue: the blanket separation of children from parents at the border. Thank G-d the policy has been stopped by Executive Order, and I am deeply grateful to the court system for mandating a rapid return of the children to their parents. Everything else is beyond my area of expertise, and although I certainly have my opinions, I don’t feel the need to debate them online. It’s clear that the United States has a challenge dealing with illegal immigration on the southern border, and our elected officials should take up the challenge of working towards a solution that preserves safety and stability while treating migrants humanely.

  7. Todah rabah for this heartfelt, historical, justice-oriented article and for emphasizing the obligation in Torah to treat the foreigner/stranger well. I was raised to believe that we Jews have an obligation to be especially sensitive to the plight of others, having experienced so much persecution ourselves. Sadly, it seems that not all share this view, and many have become callous instead.

  8. Thank you for this piece. My feeling is that it serves as reminder to apply Jewish values to contemporary life, not the mico-appropriateness of literal historical parallels. Our values and our historical experience ought to sensitize us to what is wrong and in need of repair.

    Sadly, as often happens on the internet, it is responded to as a Rorschach for people to reveal their biases and fears.

  9. Thank you so much for writing and sharing such an excellent article. I’ve already shared it with many of my family and friends. They fall into both camps–those, who like you and I are horrified at the separation of children from parents, and others who appear not to care at all. I usually make a point to NOT read comments under articles. Having said that the discussion here was for the most part well worth reading. By the way, thank you also for going the extra mile with such a well worded reply to one who chose to remain nameless.

  10. Thanks for your kind words of support. Now the challenge is to make sure our elected officials and agencies actually follow through and reunite the families–I just read a post from Councilman Mark Levine that of the 350 children sent to New York, only twelve under age five have been reunited with their families. Incomprehensible.

  11. I’ve worked with victims of child maltreatment–both assessment and reporting for 40+ yrs. The damage this trauma will cause to these children cannot be overstated. Every day we delay reunification, we’re making it worse. Based on some of the descriptions of conditions, I’ve filed reports with Child Protective Services for less.

  12. The issue of separating children from their parents at the southern US border is a very controversial one. It must first be said that the treatment of the children and the parents is deplorable and must be rectified immediately. Additionally, after the order to reunite the families, many children are still in custody, and that is cruel. But there is one point upon which I must comment. These people are entering the country illegally. When someone does something illegal, they are taken into government custody. A person who commits a crime in the US, whether a citizen or not, is separated from their children when they are incarcerated. It is simply part of the Justice System. So, it is not so far-fetched to assume that illegal immigrants taken into custody at the border would be separated from their children.
    This is not to say that I disagree with your article completely, Professor. I am disgusted by the manner in which these people were treated. It is one thing to temporarily separate parent and child for the time it takes to conduct an interrogation. It is another thing entirely to force children and babies away from their families and into cages. It is another thing to treat these people as less than human and not let them know where their children are or if they will ever see them again. Our ancestors were ripped away from their homes and families and treated like animals. You are 100% correct in your opinion that it is shameful to stand idly by. We have suffered. Will we watch in silence as others suffer as we once did?

  13. A very excellent article… and conclusion…and I’d never heard of Portugal leaving all those Jewish children on the Island…

  14. Thank you for the article and for your Jewish history lectures I love them I agree one hundred percent that inhuman to separate kids from parents but please don’t compare it to Jews being expelled because of their religion with no alternative (besides death) to those immigrants

  15. Just read the above discussion. Please, it’s enough. We all should be ashamed of ourselves. Take a breath. After just three to four short generations in this country have we forgotten who we are? I think we can agree one one thing- as a country, we can do better.

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